Mongolian Meat Dishes

Mongolian Lamb

Yield: 4 servings

Ingredients

  • 1 lb Boneless lamb — leg or shoulder
  • 3 tb Soy Sauce; divided
  • 1 tb Cornstarch
  • 2 Garlic cloves; pressed
  • 2 1/2 ts Cornstarch
  • 1 ts Sesame seed; toasted
  • 1/2 ts Sugar
  • 1/8 ts -to… 1/4 ts Crushed red pepper
  • 2 tb Vegetable oil; divided
  • 2 Carrots; cut diagonally — in thin slices
  • 1 bn Green onions
    — cut into 2-inch lengths
    — separating whites
    — from tops

Directions

Cut lamb across grain into thin slices. Combine 1 Tbsp. _each_ soy sauce, cornstarch and garlic; stir in lamb. Let stand 10 minutes. Meanwhile, combine remaining soy sauce, 3/4 cup water and next 4 ingredients; set aside. Heat 1 Tbsp. oil in hot wok or large skillet over high heat. Add lamb and stir-fry 1 minute. Add lamb and soy sauce mixture; cook and stir until sauce boils and thickens.

Mongolian Barbecue

Yield: 6 servings

Ingredients

  • 3 lb Boned Lamb Shoulder Chops OR
  • 2 lb Boneless Beef, (Tenderest -Cut The Butcher Has), -Defatted
  • 2 lg Green Peppers, Seeded And -Cut Into 1/4-Inch Strips
  • 3 c Cabbage, Shredded, Rinsed, -And Dried
  • 3 lg Carrots, Peeled And Shredded
  • 2 lg Onions, Thinly Sliced
  • 1/4 lb Bean Sprouts, Rinsed And -Drained
  • Salad Or Peanut Oil

————————-GARNISHES————————-

  • Boiled White Rice
  • Crisp Sesame Seed Buns, -Warmed
  • Middle Eastern Pita Breads
  • Thinly Sliced Crisp French -Bread

—————————SAUCE—————————

  • 1 1/2 c Dark Soy Sauce
  • 6 c Water
  • 10 Crushed Black Peppercorns
  • 4 Star Anise
  • 4 lg Cloves Garlic, Crushed
  • 1 c Rice Wine Or Sherry
  • 1 tb Sugar
  • 2 ts Fresh Ginger Root, Grated
  • 3 c Scallions Or Leeks, Chopped -And Divided
  • 3 c Chinese Parsley Or Cilantro, -Minced, Divided

Directions

Thinly slice the meats across the grain, in 2 to 3-Inch strips, and arrange the meat and vegetables on separate platters.

SAUCE: 
Simmer the soy sauce, water, peppercorns, anise and garlic for a few minutes in a saucepan, then strain and cool. Add the wine, sugar, ginger root, 2 cups of the scallions or leeks and 2 cups of the Chinese Parsley. Refresh the sauce with the remaining scallions or leeks and parsley as cooking progresses. Taste to correct the seasoning, then divide among the guests bowls. (NOTE: Do Not taste the sauce after the raw meat has been dipped in it! Just a precaution.)

TO ASSEMBLE: 
To assemble the barbecue, place the cooking appliance in the center of the table, heating and greasing the cooking surface with the salad or peanut oil. (At intervals, scrape off the charred food bits with a spatula and reoil the cooking surface and resume cooking). Guests put the meat and vegetables on the plates and then place small portions on the cooking surface and spoon some of the sauce over the grilling food, flipping the food over with chopsticks after about 1 minute on the grill. Cook to the desired doneness for each guest.

Mongolian Beef

Ingredients

  • 1 lb beef flank steak, sliced thin across the grain
  • 4 cups peanut oil for deep frying
  • 1 Tbsp light soy sauce
  • 1 Tbsp dry sherry or rice wine
  • 1/2 tsp freshly grated ginger
  • 1 Tbsp peanut oil
  • 2 cloves garlic, sliced thin
  • 4 green onions, sliced Chinese style
  • 1 tsp hoisin sauce
  • 1/4 tsp ground white pepper

Directions

Marinate cut meat in marinade for atleast 15 min. Drain marinade well and separate meat into individual pieces.

In a wok or deep pan, heat deep frying oil to 375 degrees(Farenheit). Add meat all at once and stir to separate. Remove after 1 min. and allow meat to drain.

Heat wok again (after removing oil) and add oil for chowing**. Add garlic and green onins and chow for just a moment. Add Hoisin sauce, pepper and meat. Chow until all is hot then serve.

** “Chowing” is food is tossed about in hot pan with very little oil; like sauteing.

Mongolian Hot Pot

Yield: 6 servings

Ingredients

  • 3 lb Boneless lean lamb
  • 4 oz Bean thread noodles
  • 1/2 lb Spinach
  • 1/2 lb Chinese cabbage
  • 1 qt Chicken stock
  • 1 ts Finely chopped ginger root
  • 2 tb Finely chopped scallions
  • 1 ts Minced garlic
  • 1 tb Finely chopped cilantro

———————–DIPPING SAUCE———————–

  • 2 tb Sesamepaste-=OR=- peanut butter
  • 1 tb Light soy sauce
  • 1 tb Rice wine or dry sherry
  • 2 ts Chili bean sauce
  • 1 tb Sugar
  • 1 tb Hot water

Directions

Using a cleaver or sharp knife, slice the lamb into very thin slices. Soak the noodles in warm water for 5 minutes, then drain them and cut them into 5-inch lengths. Separate the spinach leaves from the stalks and wash them well. Discard the stalks. Cut the Chinese cabbage into 3-inch pieces.

Combine all the ingredients for the dipping sauce in a small bowl and mix them well. Each guest should have his or her own small portion of dipping sauce and a plate containing lamb, spinach and Chinese cabbage. When you are ready to begin, bring the stock to a boil and light the fondue. Ladle the stock into the fondue pot and put the ginger, scallions, garlic and coriander into the stock.

Each person selects a piece of food and cooks it quickly in the pot. When all the meat and vegetables have been eaten, add the noodles to the pot, let them heat through, then ladle the soup into soup bowls.

This dish also works successfully with other foods such as steak, fish balls, oysters, shrimp, squid, mushrooms and lettuce, although it will no longer be a Mongolian Hot Pot, but more like the Cantonese Chrysanthemum Pot.

Huushuur (fried meat pasties)

Recipe makes about 32 pasties

Ingredients

For the filling:

  • 1 kg minced mutton or beef, with fat included
  • 3 ½ teaspoons salt
  • 1 onion, chopped
  • 2 cloves garlic, crushed
  • water to mix

Mix the filling ingredients together into a firm paste. 
For the dough:

  • 4 ½ cups flour
  • ½ teaspoon salt
  • water to mix

Directions

Mix the dough ingredients together and knead into a dough. Divide into smaller pieces and roll these into cylinders about 3 cm in diameter. Cut the cylinders into 4cm lengths.
To assemble:
Take one length of dough and squash it into a circle. Roll it out until it is 8 to 10cm wide. Roll more at the edges than in the middle, so the dough is slightly thinner around the edges. Put 2 ½ dessertspoons of meat mixture onto one side of your circle, leaving a space around the edge. Fold the other side over, pinching the edge flat. Leave one corner open and squeeze out the air, then seal the corner. Fold the corner over and pinch again, then work around the edge folding and pinching into a twist pattern. Repeat the process with the rest of the filling and dough pieces. 
To cook: 
Using 2 litres cooking oil, heat the oil in a wok (make sure the oil comes no higher than 5cm below the top). Fry three or four pasties at a time for two minutes each side, until they are brown and the meat is cooked. Eat with tomato ketchup or soy sauce.

Guriltai Shul (Mutton Soup)

Ingredients

  • 500g fatty mutton, cut into strips (as for a stir-fry). Make sure you include the fat. 
  • mutton fat or oil 
  • 2 large potatoes, diced 
  • 1 swede, diced 
  • 2 onions, diced 
  • 1 carrot, diced 
  • 2 teaspoons stock powder or salt 
  • 2 or 3 litres water 
  • 1 packet flat noodles (fresh or dried)

Directions

In a large wok, lightly fry the sliced mutton in the fat. Add the vegetables and stir-fry briefly. Add the water and stock or salt. Boil until almost cooked, then add the noodles and continue boiling until these are ready.

Serve in small bowls. Tsuivan (fried noodles) Proceed as for mutton soup above, but do not add the water. Instead, stir-fry the meat and vegetables and then add the fresh (or boiled dried) noodles, and continue stir-frying until the noodles are ready and the flavours have melded.

Steamed Booz

Apparently cooking and serving boiled lamb without spices is not a deeply rooted Tuvan-Mongolian tradition, and members of the two cultures occasionally part from old habits in favour of paprika, pepper, marjoram, etc. One Tuvan friend liked to cook with dried chili pepper flakes, not always easily found in the market of Kyzyl. Feel free to add salt, paprika, pepper or marjoram to the minced lamb as you desire; the traditional meat is unspiced.

The pattern of the pinched edges of booz and khoorshoor is a matter of competition and pride. Several delicate forms can be made by the fingers, the smaller and thinner is the better for booz. The edges should not be very thin for the khoorshoor, because it burns when frying.

Ingredients

  • Mix flour and a little water (salting permitted) to make dough.
  • Flatten the dough to a thickness of 2 or 3 mm. In college kitchens, use wine bottles to flatten the dough. (The bottles should be emptied beforehand.)
  • Cut the dough into discs, roughly 10-15 cm in diameter. A cup or glass is useful as a pooza cutter.
  • Fill the discs with minced lamb (with the fat).
  • Put the disc of dough in your palm, and form a ball in your hand by pinching the edges of the dough together; leave a little opening on top (important!).
  • Steam for about 20 minutes.

The meat boils in its own juice, keeping all vitamins, minerals, trace elements, etc. You eat it by hand, opening your mouth BIG!

You’ll need from 5 to 15 balls per person. This is the famous booz (Mongolian name) or pooza (Tuvan name).

Fried Booz

Here is the recipe for the fried version of booz, the khoorshoor.
Dough and filling is the same as for booz.

Directions

  • Mix flour and a little water (salting permitted) to make dough.
  • Flatten the dough to a thickness of 2 or 3 mm. In college kitchens, use wine bottles to flatten the dough. (The bottles should be emptied beforehand.)
  • Cut the dough into discs, roughly 10-15 cm in diameter. A cup or glass is useful as a pooza cutter.
  • Fill the discs with minced lamb (with the fat).
  • Put the disc of dough in your palm, put the minced meat on it. Fold the dough over it (you get a half-disc).
  • Pinch the two dough layers together. No holes should be left, otherwise the juice of the meat will disappear.
  • The khoorshhor is flat, about 2 cm thick.
  • Fry both sides in lamb fat (although Mongolians in Hungary readily use sunflower oil). The colour of the fried dough should be light brown. It is crisp at the edges and soft in the middle.

Editors note:Now, here are the same ideas as above, but with more specific ingredients. I give you both so you can choose which best suits your cooking style. The ones above are sorta ‘seat of the pants’ kinda recipes, which I like sometimes, the ones below are more traditional (and safe). The ones below are also interesting because they are taken from 16th century recipes and translated (accurately?) into modern equivilents.

Corun MacAnndra gives modern recipes for two versions of a lamb in dough ball recipe, called “booz” and “Khoorshoor.” They sound similar to the medieval islamic Sanbusak, which I suspect is related to the modern Indian Samosa and to the following ingredient list from _Ain i Abari_ (16th century Mughal):

Qutab, which the people of Hind call sanbusa: 
This is made in several ways.

  • 10 s. meat;
  • 4 s. fine flour;
  • 2 s. ghee;
  • 1 s. onions;
  • 1/4 s. fresh ginger;
  • 1/2 s. salt;
  • 2 d. pepper and coriander seed;
  • cardamons, cumin seed, cloves, 1 d. of each;
  • 1/4 s. of summaq.

This can be cooked in twenty different ways, and gives four full dishes. 
Our current worked out version is: 
To make 1/34th of this:

  • 10 oz meat
  • 4 oz flour=aprox 1/2 c white + 1/2 c whole wheat
  • 2 oz ghee=aprox 4T (can substitute butter or margarine)
  • 1 oz onion=1/3 to 1/2 c chopped
  • 1/4 oz fresh ginger=1T chopped
  • 1/2 oz salt=2t
  • 1/24 th oz pepper=1/2 t ground
  • 1/24 th oz coriander seed=1/2 t ground
  • 1/49th oz cardamon=1/4 t ground
  • 1/49th oz cumin=1/4 t ground
  • 1/49th oz cloves=1/4 t ground
  • 1/4 oz sumac=2t

Directions

The following instructions are loosely based on the Andalusian Sanb[[ucircumflex]]sak recipe.

Mix the flour, cut into it the ghee; continue until it is finely cut in. Sprinkle on about 4-5 T water and knead to a smooth dough.

Cut up meat, combine it and all remaining ingredients in a food processor. Process about 25 seconds, until it is all cut finely together. Roll out the dough to about 12″x16″, and cut into 2″x2″ pieces. Divide the filling evenly, putting about a 1.5 t of the filling in each (i.e. use up all the filling). Wrap the filling in the dough. It would probably work with fewer squares and larger amounts of filling as well; the related Andalusian recipe specifies a lump of filling the size of a walnut and an equal amount of dough to wrap it with.

Put about 3 c of cooking oil in about a 3 qt pot, heat to between 350deg. and 370deg., fry the Sanbusas about 1 1/2 to 2 minutes each, drain, serve. Makes about 48

Rather salty, but not intolerably so. People who do not like salt should probably cut it in half. Almost all of the dishes from this source come out quite salty. –

Shulla

  • 10 s. meat,
  • 3 1/2 s. rice;
  • 2 s. ghi;
  • 1 s. gram;
  • 2 s. onions;
  • 1/2 s. salt;
  • 1/4 s. fresh ginger;
  • 2 d. garlic,
  • round pepper, cinnamon, cardamons, cloves, 1 d. of each: this gives six dishes.

According to calculations by Robin Carroll-Mann, who first told me about this source:

1 ser = 964 gm. = 2lbs, 2 oz.
1 dam =20.084 gm. = 7/10 oz.

The following is our worked out version, as it currently stands:

  • meat: 1lb leg of lamb
  • rice: 1.6 oz = 3-4 T
  • ghee 1.6 oz = 1/4 c
  • gram (chickpeas) .8 oz = 2T
  • onions 3 oz sliced (check volume)
  • salt .8 oz salt! = 1T
  • fresh ginger .4 oz peeled and copped (check volume)
  • garlic .07 ounce! = aprox 1/2 clove, sliced
  • pepper .035 oz = 1/2 t
  • cinnamon .035 oz = 1/4 stick
  • cardamon .035 oz = aprox 1/2 t
  • cloves .035 oz = aprox 1/2 t< /LI >< /LI >

Directions

Melt the ghee, put it in a pot. Brown the meat, onions, and garlic in it for about 5 minutes on a medium heat. Add 1 1/4 c of lukewarm water, salt, chickpeas, cinnamon. Simmer about another 10 minutes, then add ginger, pepper, cardamom and cloves. Add the rice and another 1/2 c of water. Simmer another 1/2 hour. Serve.

This was done on the (very uncertain) assumption that Shulla is related to Shurba in al-Baghdadi, and that the recipe we have for the latter thus gives a rough idea of how the former is made.

Khorkhog

A while back I had a recipe for Khorkhog, which was listed as a mongolian festival dish. The book doesn’t say how old the recipe is, but it consits of the following:

Ingredients

  • 1 Lamb cut into small pieces still on the bone
  • 1 basket of onions chopped coarsley
  • seasonings to taste (also needed is a large urn and many small stones that have been heated in a fire) rice
  • cooking broth

Directions

Mix the lamb pieces and onions together. fill the urn with alternating layers of the lamb mixture and the hot stones until full, cover the urn and leave it alone for a few hours.

When finished, remove stones, scoop out lamb and onion mixture and serve over rice with cooking broth.

I’ve made this on several of our saturday night gaming sessions, although I cheated. I used boneless lamb, and baked it in a covered caserole dish at 350 for 75 minutes.

Ul Boov

Heat up two liters water until warm – just a little above body temp so you can stand to stick your finger in it for a while.

Add about 400 grams of butter to it and let melt – better if you use clarified butter (shar tos). Then add 1.5 tea cups sugar and a teaspoon of salt.

Mix in enough flour until you can knead it and make a firm dough. Knead it for a few minutes, then let it rest 20 mins, then knead it to death. It’s kneaded enough when you cut a slice with a knife and there are no bubbles left in it – the more solid you can make the dough the more authentic this will turn out. One person can usually manage this in 10 to 20 mins.

Once its kneaded, grab off a piece of dough enough to form a small log about 15 to 20 cm long and 7 to 10 cm diameter. Flatten it to about a centimeter and a half thick, it should form a piece shaped like a racetrack. about as big as a small foot (that’s why its called ul boov, it is shaped like a footprint). Leaving a rim about a 1.5 to 2 cm wide, press in the center to make a depression, leaving the outer edge taller (like a pizza crust with the rim). The thickness of the crust at the center must be almost 1 cm thick or it will break during frying. Usually Mongolians carve a stamp out of wood to make a decorative design in the center of the boov. You can try to make a stamp if you like, if you can’t just try and make the bottom as flat as possible, otherwise your boov will warp. Now, the rims (your pizza crust bit) are much thicker than the center. If you cook it this way the rims on the long sides can explode in the oil. Flip over the boov gently and using a thin sharp knife, make a shallow cut along the length of the two longer crusts from the back side of the boov. Cut in the center line and only go about halfway through. All you want to do is make a slit in the bottom of the pizza rim bits to let any pressure escape, make sure you don’t cut all the way through to the front or through the short sides of the boov. Stop each slash before you get to the two shorter ends, the rounded crust ends never explode so you don’t need to slash these.

As you start shaping your boov, heat a large kettle about half full of cooking oil. Most Mongolian use beef tallow but that’s because it’s what they have at home, you can use any kind of cooking oil that withstands frying well. Make sure the kettle is stable and keep kids and pets away from where you are frying. The oil is hot enough when it looks like its boiling when you drop a bit of boov in. If the oil is not hot enough the boov will soak up too much oil. Drop in no more boov in than can float comfortably on top of the oil side by side in your kettle. If its crowded it doesn’t work. When you first drop them in they will sink. Then they will float. Once they float, turn them very gently occasioanlly, so they cook evenly, and let them cook until they become a tan/orange color. They should not be brown. Lift them out and drain.

Once they are all cool you can build your tower by stacking them. You should always make an odd number of layers. Traditionally, grandparents have 7 layers of Ul boov, parents – 5 layers, and young couples – 3 layers. For a three layer stack you need minimum of 6 pieces of perfect boov, which you should be able to get out of the two liter of water recipe above. One or two may warp :-) Place two side by side with a space in between, and lay another two crosswise on top of these. Most of the other stuff is piled on the top later, not sandwiched between the lower ones, although its ok to tuck a piece if aruul into the small gaps. Layer with aruul, hard cheese, wrapped candies, and sugar cubes.

Bansh

Bansh looks like a miniature buuz that is sealed tightly without any holes and is boiled in water with a pinch of salt instead of being steamed. Bansh can be served as a separate dish or in a bouillon, soup or milk tea.

Ingredients

Meat filling 

  • Minced beef or mutton
  • Medium onion
  • Salt
  • Ground pepper (optional)
  • Garlic (optional)
  • Chopped herbs (optional)
  • 5-spices (optional)

Dough

  • Premium wheat flour
  • A pinch of salt
  • Lukewarm water

Cooking time:
Approximately 1 hour

Directions

For the dough
Dissolve a pinch of salt in lukewarm water, mix in flour and knead into smooth soft dough. Leave the dough to rest. Knead again and roll out. Cut out small round circles using a glass with sharp edges.

For the meat filling 
Mince beef or mutton. You can certainly use a Moulinex for this purpose; however, buuz will taste better if you do the mincing by hand using a sharp knife. Combine the meat in a bowl with minced onion, crushed garlic (optional), herbs (optional) and other seasonings. Add some water to make the filling juicy.

The next stage is forming bansh. Put the meat filling in the center of the circle and seal the edges tightly with your fingers. When forming is complete, put bansh in boiling water, add a pinch of salt and cook for about 7-10 minutes or until bansh starts floating on the surface. Boiled bansh must be served hot.

Guriltai Shol

Guriltai shol is a very simple and healthy Mongolian noodle soup made of meat and dough stripes. It is warms you up and is practically irreplaceable in cold winters. If the route to a man’s heart lies through his stomach, then the route to a Mongolian man’s heart will surely lie through a bowl of guriltai shol.

Ingredients

  • Meat (beef or mutton)
  • Salt
  • Onion
  • Pepper and other seasonings (optional)
    Dough

     

    • Premium wheat flour
    • A pinch of salt
    • Water

Cooking time: 
Approximately 30 minutes

Directions

Cut the meat into thin slices, put in cold water, add salt and boil. Usually, Mongolians do not use lean meat because it does not produce a good bouillon. Therefore, leave the fat on and slice it together with meat. You can put bones with some meat to make the bouillon heartier. Such bones are removed when the bouillon is ready. While the bouillon is being cooked, prepare the dough.

Dissolve a pinch of salt in cold water, mix in flour and knead into smooth but enough hard dough. Leave the dough to rest. Knead again and roll out thinly. Cut into stripes of 3-4 sm wide, put 3-4 stripes on each other layering with sprinkles of flour to avoid sticking and slice into thin pieces.

Put the thin dough pieces into the boiling bouillon and boil for 4-5 minutes. Add thinly sliced onion. You may add pepper and other soup seasonings, however, these are not used for the classic Mongolian guriltai shol.

Pyartan

Pyartan is a variety of guriltai shol. However, the dough pieces are cut into thin rectangles or are randomly torn from the thinly rolled out dough stripes. The cooking process is the same as for guriltai shol..

Ingredients

  • Meat (beef or mutton)
  • Salt
  • Onion
  • Pepper and other seasonings (optional)
    Dough
  • Premium wheat flour
  • A pinch of salt
  • Water

Cooking time:
Approximately 30 minutes

Directions

Cut the meat into thin slices, put in cold water, add salt and boil. Usually, Mongolians do not use lean meat because it does not produce a good bouillon. Therefore, leave the fat on and slice it together with meat. You can put bones with some meat to make the bouillon heartier. Such bones are removed when the bouillon is ready. While the bouillon is being cooked, prepare the dough.

Dissolve a pinch of salt in cold water, mix in flour and knead into smooth but enough hard dough. Leave the dough to rest. Knead again and roll out thinly. Cut into stripes of 2-3 sm wide, put 3-4 stripes on each other layering with sprinkles of flour to avoid sticking and cut out thin rectangles.

Put the thin dough rectangles into the boiling bouillon and boil for 4-5 minutes. You can also randomly tear pieces from the dough stripes into the bouillon. Add thinly sliced onion

Bantan

Bantan is a simple Mongolian soup of creamy texture made of meat and dough crumbs. Bantan is a favorite hangover remedy for Mongolians.

Ingredients

  • Meat (beef or mutton)
  • Salt
  • Onion Dough
  • Premium wheat flour
  • A pinch of salt
  • Water

Cooking time: 
Approximately 30 minutes

Directions

Cut the meat into thin small slices, put in cold water, add salt and boil. Usually, Mongolians do not use lean meat because it does not produce a good bouillon. Therefore, leave the fat on and slice it together with meat. While the bouillon is being cooked, prepare the dough.

Dissolve a pinch of salt in cold water, mix in flour and blend with your fingers into small dough crumbs. Put the crumbs into the boiling bouillon and boil for 4-5 minutes until the soup becomes thick and creamy. You can add thinly sliced onion.

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