Kings of Korea

Korea is an old country, with the earliest states beginning about the time of the Late Chou Dynasty in China. Despite the predominant Chinese influence on Korea and the vast borrowing of Chinese vocabulary, the Korean language is unrelated to Chinese. There is no agreement about just what it is related to, though kinship with Japanese seems likely and to the Altaic languages (Manchu, Mongol, Turkish) possible. Originally written in Chinese characters, Korean now uses its own unique writing system, Han-gul, promulated by King Sejong in 1446. Han-gul writes syllabic characters that are regularly composed of elements indicating the phonology of the syllables. This would allow Han-gul to be easily and freely mixed with Chinese characters, as was long done, or completely replace them, as has largely been the custom since 1945. To the uninitiated, Han-gul characters can easily be distinguished from Chinese, since they contain circles, which are not used in Chinese characters.

The earliest important state in Korea was Old Choson, which began in the 4th century BC and endured until its conquest by the Chinese state of Yen (or Yan) around 300 BC. When Yen was conqured by the Ch’in Dynasty in 222, its Korean possessions passed with it, though my map of the Ch’in actually doesn’t show it extending that far, so perhaps Ch’in control quickly lapsed. Nevertheless, at the fall of the Ch’in in 206, Han Dynasty control was extended into Korea, but briefly. A rebellion between 194-180, under a Chinese leader, Wiman, resulted in the independence of Choson until renewed Han conquest in 108 BC. Chinese control lapsed in the last reign of the Later Han Dynasty, around 210 AD, but then was restablished in the Three Kingdoms Period by the Wei Dynasty, around 238.

Meanwhile, other Korean states developed. North of the Chinese possessions was Puyo, beginning in the 4th century BC, which later was absorbed by Koguryo, traditionally founded in 57 BC. South of Chinese possessions in the Korean penninsula was the state of Chin, beginning in the 2nd century BC. Chin broke apart into the “three Hans,” the states of Mahan, Chinhan, and Pyonhan.

The Han states ended up aborbed by new kingdoms in the South, Paekche, Silla, and Kaya. The Kings of Paekche and Silla are listed here. Mahan fell to Paekche in 369. When Koguryo drove out the Chinese in 313 and arrived at the borders of Paekche and Silla, this began the “Three Kingdoms” period in Korean history (313-668). Koguryo is the kingdom that was attacked by the Sui Dynasty in 612. This was followed by T’ang Dynasty invasions, also defeated, 645-647. But the Chinese made headway, conquering Paekche in 660 and combining with Silla to overthrown Koguryo in 667-668. The Chinese tried to retain their Korean territory; but Silla took Paekche in 671, and the Chinese conceded the penninsula in 676.

Silla becomes the single kingdom of Chosen or Korea. The initial state survives until broken up by rebellions beginning in 891. A new “Three Kingdoms” period develops, until the country is reunified by the Koryo (“Later Koguryo”) state, which annexed Silla in 935. This is indicated in the King list as no more than a change in dynasty.

These lists come entirely form Bruce R. Gordon’s Regnal Chronologies. Korean language information is from Barron’s Korean at a Glance, by Daniel D. Holt and Grace Massey Holt [Barron’s Educational Series, Inc., 1988], and NTC’s Compact Korean and English Dictionary, by B.J. Jones and Gene S. Rhie [NTC Publishing Group, 1995].

The modern Japanese occupation of Korea, although recent, had major long term effects. The oppressive Japanese regime included the forced imposition of Shinto rites and the “missions” of various Japanese Buddhist sects. This tended to motivate sympathy for Western religion and, in particular, to discredit Buddhism altogether. Thus, up to a third of (South) Koreans are now Christians, and it is a rare church in California that does not have some Korean on its signs. A third of Koreans, however, are still Buddhist, and the rest observe the Korean equivalent of traditional Chinese Confucian/Taoist religion.

The Japanese occupation, of course, did not end without a new national trauma being introduced — the Russian occupation of the northern part of the country and then the establishment there of a Communist regime. When the North, with Russian blessing, invaded the South in 1950, this set off the first major shooting war in the Cold War. Before the front stabilized, the Communists nearly overwhelmed the surprised South Koreans and Americans. The North Koreans collapsed, however, when Douglas MacArthur daringly landed in their rear at Inchon. Only the intervention of the Chinese recovered the Communist position and resulted in a stalemate and a cease-fire with roughly the status quo ante.

The South Korean flag, with its traditional Chinese yin and yang symbols, is given at right. The North Korean flag, with a typical Communist red star, is unworthy of notice. Indeed, as South Korea grew into one of the economic “Four Tigers” of East Asia and left behind decades of dictatorship for democracy, North Korea developed into one of the nastiest and most psychotic tyrannies in history, with a dynasty of despots, the Kims, who have actually allowed the country to starve rather than have the word “pragmatism” cross their minds. North Korea even charges foreign relief organizations for the privilege of providing free food. Recently, the North and South have established some more friendly contacts, and the North has allowed some communication between divided families, but the present “Great Leader” of the North, Kim Jong Il, has given no indication of releasing his iron grip either on power or on the suffocated economy of his prison-state — which has not stopped radical and clueless South Korean students from demonstrating on behalf and the North and for reunification.

Recent developments, late in 2002, have thrown new light on North Korea. The government recently admitted that it had been kidnapping Japanese, in Japan itself, including one 13-year-old girl, in order to plant North Korean agents. They have now allowed some of these victims to visit relatives in Japan, but since they are not allowing their Korean families out of the country, the victims are expected to dutifuly return to their North Korean prison — most have not, hoping that their families will eventually be allowed to follow. The most unsettling revelation, however, has just been that North Korea ignored right from the beginning the agreement negotiated in 1994 by Jimmy Carter by which they would receive technical assistance in their nuclear power program, on the condition that they end their nuclear weapons program. Since there never was any provision for verifying the end of the weapons program, they simply didn’t bother to end it. Why they have now admitted this is a matter of speculation. In retrospect, one remembers Ronald Reagan’s maxim when dealing with the Soviets, “Trust, but verify.” Jimmy Carter, consistently naive in Realpolitik, demonstrates his ability to do damage even long out of office (even Bill Clinton didn’t want him in North Korea and had to accept the fait accompli negotiated by Carter). In 2003, the North Korean government announced that it had actually already produced a number of nuclear weapons. Meanwhile, North Koreans, who are allowed to travel to China, have been seeking asylum in Western embassies and consulates there. In one incident, Chinese police broke into a Japanese consulate to drag out Korean supplicants. Japan protested, since this is a violation of International Law, and the Chinese actually released the Koreans.


In November 2004 National Geographic released a map showing the Earth at night. Japan, South Korea, and even much of China are lit up like lamps. North Korea, however, is as dark as many uninhabited places on Earth. Few things would be as graphically revealing of the poverty and misery of the North.

 

Koguryo
Tongmyong/
Chumong Wang
37-19
Yurimyong Wang 19-18
Taemusin Wang 18 BC-
44 AD
Mingjung Wang 44-48
Mobong Wang 48-53
T’aejo Taewang 53-146
Ch’adae Wang 146-165
Sindae Wang 165-179
Kogukch’ong
Wang
179-197
Sangsang Wang 197-227
Tongch’ong Wang 227-248
capital falls to
Wei Dynasty, 244
Ch’ungch’ong
Wang
248-270
Soch’ong Wang 270-292
Pongsang Wang 292-300
Mich’ong Wang 300-331
Chinese Western Tsin
Dynasty) driven from
Korea, Beginning of
“Three Kingdoms”
Period, 313
Kogukwong Wang 331-371
capital sacked by
state of Yan, 342
Sosurim Wang 371-384
adoption of
Buddhism, 372
Kogukyang Wang 384-392
Kwangaet’o Wang 392-413
Changsu Wang 413-491
Munja Wang 491-519
Anjang Wang 519-531
Angwong Wang 531-545
Yangwong Wang 545-559
P’yongwong Wang 559-590
Yonyang Wang 590-618
Yongnyu Wang 618-642
Invasion by Sui Dynasty
defeated, 612
Pojang Wang 642-668
Invasion by T’ang Dynasty
defeated, 645-647;
conquered by Silla
& the Chinese, 667-668

Silla
Pak Hykkose
Kosogun
57 BC-
4 AD
Namhae
Ch’ach’aung
4-24
Yuri Isagum 24-57
Sok T’arhae
Isagum
57-80
Pak P’asa Isagum 80-112
Chima Isagum 112-134
Ilsong Isagum 134-154
Adalla Isagum 154-184
Sok Porhyu
Isagum
184-196
Naehae Isagum 196-230
Chobun Isagum 230-247
Ch’omhae Isagum 247-261
Kim Mich’u
Isagum
261-284
Sok Yurye
Isagum
284-298
Kirim Isagum 298-310
Hurhae Isagum 310-356
Kim Naemul
Maripkan
356-402
Silson Maripkan 402-417
Nulji Maripkan 417-458
Chabi Maripkan 458-479
Soji Maripkan 479-500
Chijung Wang 500-514
Pop’ung Wang 514-540
adoption of
Buddhism, 535
Chinghung Wang 540-576
conquers Kaya, 562
Chingji Wang 576-579
Chingp’yong
Wang
579-632
Sondok
Yowang (f)
632-647
Chindok
Yowang (f)
647-654
T’aejong
Muyol Wang
654-661
Munmu Wang 661-681
Munmu Wang 668-681
Paekche, 671;
Koguryo, 676
Sinmun Wang 681-692
Hyoso 692-702
Songdok Wang 702-737
Hyosong Wang 737-742
Kyondok Wang 742-765
Hyegong Wang 765-780
Sondok Wang 780-785
Wonsong Wang 785-799
Sosong Wang 799-800
Aejang Wang 800-809
Hondok Wang 809-826
Hongdok Wang 826-836
Huigang Wang 836-838
Minae Wang 838-839
Sinmu Wang 839-857
Honan Wang 857-861
Kyogmun Wang 861-875
Hongong Wang 875-886
Chonggang
Wang Kim
886-887
Chinsong
Yowang (f)
887-897
Hyogong Wang 897-912
Sindok Wang 912-917
Kyong Myong
Wang
917-924
Koryo
T’aejo I 924-943
Hyejong 944-945
Chongjong I 946-949
Kwangjong 950-975
Kyongjong 976-981
Songjong I 981-997
Mokshong 997-1009
Hyonjong I 1010-1032
Tokjong 1032-1035
Chongjong II 1035-1047
Munjong I 1047-1083
Sunjong 1083
Sonjong 1084-1095
Honjong I 1095
Sokjong 1096-1105
Yejong I 1106-1122
Injong I 1123-1146
Uijong 1147-1170
Myongjong 1170-1197
Sinjong 1198-1205
Huijong 1205-1211
Kangjong 1212-1213
Kojong I 1213-1259
Mongol invasion, 1231;
Mongol suzereinty, 1258
Wonjong 1260-1274
Ch’unguyol 1275-1309
Ch’ungson 1309-1314
Ch’ungsuk 1314-1330
Ch’unghye 1330-1332,
1339-1344
Ch’angsuk 1332-1339
Ch’ungmok 1344-1348
Ch’unajong 1349-1351
Kongmin 1351-1374
Sin U 1374-1389
Sinch’ang 1389
Kongyang 1389-1392
Joseon/Choson/Yi
T’aejo II 1392-1398
Chongjong III 1398-1400
T’aejong 1401-1418
Sejong 1418-1450
Han-gul introduced, 1446
Munjong II 1450-1452
Tanjong 1452-1455
Sejo 1456-1468
Yejong II 1468-1469
Songjong II 1470-1494
Yonsan Gun 1494-1506
Chungjong 1506-1544
Injong II 1544-1545
Myonjong 1546-1567
Sonjo 1567-1608
Japanese invasions,
defeated, 1592,
1597-1598
Kwan Naegun 1609-1623
Injo 1623-1649
Hyojong 1650-1659
Hyonjong II 1660-1675
Sukchong 1675-1720
Kyonjong 1720-1724
Yongjo 1725-1776
Chongjo 1777-1800
Sunjo 1801-1834
Honjong II 1835-1849
Ch’oljong 1850-1864
Kojong II 1864-1907,
d. 1919
Sungjong 1907-1910
Japanese Protectorate,
1905-1910;
Annexed to Japan,
1910-1945;
Allied Military Occupation,
1945-1948
Republic of Korea,
1948-present;
Communist government,
1948-present

Paekche
Ongjo Wang 18 BC-
28 AD
Taru Wang 28-77
Kiru Wang 77-128
Kaeru Wang 128-166
Kusu Wang 166-214
Sabang Wang 214-234
Koyi Wang 234-286
Ch’aekkyo
Wang
286-298
Punso Wang 298-304
Piryu Wang 304-344
Kye Wang 344-346
Kunch’ogo
Wang
346-375
Kungusu Wang 375-384
adoption of
Buddhism, 384
Ch’imnyu Wang 384-385
Chinsa Wang 385-392
Asin Wang 392-405
Chongji Wang 405-420
Kungsin Wang 420-427
Piyu Wang 427-455
Kaero Wang 455-475
Mungju Wang 475-477
Samgung Wang 477-479
Tongsong Wang 479-501
Munyong Wang 501-523
Song Wang 523-554
Widok Wang 554-598
Hye Wang 598-599
Pob Wang 599-600
Mu Wang 600-642
Uyja Wang 642-660
overthrown by
T’ang Dynasty
China, 660

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Many Thanks to: www.friesian.com

No tags for this post.