We have four lists of ingredient substitutes from various sources. Below are two general ingredient lists. There are also Thai / Asian and Philippine ingredient substitution lists.
Cake flour in the US is not common but can be replaced by removing three tablespoons per cup and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.
Self-raising flour in the US is all-purpose flour plus 1? teaspoon baking powder and ? teaspoon of salt per cup of flour.
Whole wheat flour in the US and wholemeal flour in the UK are basically equal.
Baking powder contains both baking soda and a powdered acid so an added acidic ingredient is not needed.
Sweetened condensed milk is mixed with a sweetener. If you find your self in a pinch this mix will do: 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons powered milk, ? cup granulated sugar and ? cup warm water.
Buttermilk also known as cultured milk and can be replaced by sour milk. Take one tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice, place in a measuring cup and fill with enough milk to make one cup. Do not stir, let stand for five minutes before using.
Minimum milk fat content by weight for creams:
Potato flour is not a flour it is a starch and another equivalent to cornstarch.
Arrowroot is also and equivalent of cornstarch but it works at a lower temperature.
Cornmeal and polenta can be equivalent but polenta can also be finished product similar to mush (cooked cornmeal that conglomerates to a moist loaf texture).
Granulated sugar can be substituted for caster sugar but it is coarser than caster and does not alway give the desired results.
Corn syrup is not common outside the US and sugar (golden) syrup can be substituted. If you are in desperate need of corn syrup you can substitute 2 parts sugar to 1 part water and boil to a syrupy texture.
Black Treacle in the UK and molasses in the US are similar but there is a subtle difference in taste.
Copha is a solid fat the is derived from the coconut. It is used primarily in recipes where it is melted and combined with other ingredients and left to set. Health Notice this product is full of Saturated fat and should be avoided where possible.
Lard is rendered animal fat and can be successfully substituted in some recipes for shortening.
When deep frying remember that some oils are not as heat tolerant as others. Olive oil, butter, margarine and lard have a low heat tolerance and should not be used for deep frying. Corn, vegetable, canola and peanut oils all have a high heat tolerance and work well.
Dark chocolate in the US is the same as plain chocolate in the UK. Dark chocolate is sometimes known as semi-sweet chocolate in the US. Sweet dark, semi-sweet and bittersweet chocolate are sometimes differentiated by some makers but seem to be very similar.
Milk chocolate in the US and the UK are the same.
Chocolate chips are not and alternative for bar chocolates because a chemical has been added to the chips to slow down melting.
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